Shining a Light: Vitamin D’s role in mental wellbeing

Illuminate the profound link between vitamin D and mood. From seasonal blues to neurotransmitters, learn how this essential vitamin shapes our feelings.

Vitamin D plays a crucial role in mental wellbeing
Vitamin D plays a crucial role in mental wellbeing


What is vitamin D?

Vitamin D – often referred to as the ‘sunshine vitamin’, is, at its essence, a fat-soluble nutrient. It’s pivotal in maintaining the health of your bones and teeth, supporting your immune system, brain, and nervous system, and even regulating insulin levels. But when you delve deeper, you realise that vitamin D wears several hats, making it stand distinctively apart from its peers. Let’s look at why:

  • Nature’s Double Agent: Unlike other vitamins, vitamin D has a dual role. Not only does it function as a vitamin but also as a hormone. When the sun graces your skin, it kickstarts the production of vitamin D. After this, it travels to your kidneys, becoming activated and then acts as a hormone, influencing numerous essential functions in your body.
  • Synthesis Over Ingestion: Most vitamins are ushered into your body through the foods you eat. But vitamin D is different. The sun’s rays, especially UVB rays, when they meet your skin, initiate a process that allows your skin cells to produce vitamin D. While there are foods that naturally contain or are fortified with vitamin D – like oily fish, mushrooms or certain dairy products – for many, it’s the sunlight that plays the starring role in their vitamin D intake.
  • Limited Natural Food Sources: There’s a scarcity of natural foods high in vitamin D. While many other vitamins can be readily sourced from a varied diet, with vitamin D, the pickings are a tad more sparse. This makes its sun-driven synthesis even more crucial.
  • Storage Mechanism: Vitamin D is stored in your liver and fat tissues, acting as a reserve for days, weeks or even months. This reserve system is rather special because it means that during months with less sunlight, your body has a backup to draw upon. However, over-reliance on these reserves without replenishing them can lead to deficiency.

Vitamin D undoubtedly occupies a unique pedestal in the vast realm of vitamins. It’s intriguing how this vitamin, so closely tied to the rhythms of the sun and our exposure to it, plays such a central role in myriad bodily functions. Ensuring you’re replete in vitamin D isn’t just about bone health but a broader tapestry of wellbeing. So, as you consider your diet and lifestyle, spare a thought for this sunshine nutrient.

As we age our skin produces less Vitamin D
As we age our skin produces less Vitamin D

Why might I be vitamin D deficient?

Sunlight, as we’ve just discussed, is your top source of vitamin D. When UVB rays hit your skin, a chemical reaction occurs, converting a substance in your skin to the active form of vitamin D. But what happens when there’s not enough sunlight, or you’re indoors too often? You could end up with a deficiency. Here’s why some might be lacking:

  • Geographical Location: If you reside in places with long winters or where the sun plays peekaboo behind clouds, your exposure to sunlight can be limited.
  • Indoor Lifestyle: Modern living has many of us spending a significant portion of our day indoors. Whether it’s work, leisure or even a global pandemic confining us, limited outdoor time means less sun exposure.
  • Skin Pigmentation: The higher the melanin in your skin, the less vitamin D you produce. Individuals with darker skin tones might need more sun exposure to generate the same amount of vitamin D as those with lighter skin.
  • Age: As you age, your skin’s ability to produce vitamin D decreases. Older individuals may need to rely more on dietary sources and supplements.
  • Use of Sunscreen: While sunscreen is essential for protecting your skin from harmful UV rays, it can also block the production of vitamin D. It’s a delicate balance between safeguarding your skin and ensuring you get enough of this sunshine vitamin.

While the sun is a fantastic and natural source of vitamin D, various factors can hinder your ability to get enough. Recognising these barriers is the first step towards ensuring your levels remain optimal.

Vitamin D helps regulate neurotransmitters like serotonin
Vitamin D helps regulate neurotransmitters like serotonin

How does vitamin D influence brain health?

Vitamin D is more than just a nutrient; it’s a precursor to hormones and has widespread roles throughout our body, notably in the brain. Imagine your brain as a bustling city with neurotransmitters as the primary communication network. Proper signalling in this “city” ensures everything runs smoothly.

Here’s how vitamin D plays a crucial role in your brain:

  • Regulation of Neurotransmitters: Just like a radio needs the right frequency to broadcast a clear signal, your brain requires certain chemicals to communicate effectively. Vitamin D helps regulate neurotransmitters like serotonin, which is heavily linked to mood. Low serotonin levels? You might feel a dip in your spirits.
  • Neuroprotection: Your brain is a powerhouse, continuously working even when you’re asleep. Vitamin D offers a protective layer, shielding neurons and reducing inflammation. Think of it as a cyclist’s protective gear; it might not stop every accident, but it can make a difference when it counts.
  • Brain Development: Our brains undergo significant development and changes throughout life, especially during our younger and older years. Vitamin D supports this process, ensuring that your brain develops healthily and maintains its function over time.

So, when thinking of brain health, remember that vitamin D silently works in the background, ensuring everything runs smoothly.

Is there a connection vitamin D levels and specific mood disorders?

Stepping into the realm of mood disorders, the role of vitamin D becomes even more apparent. Over the years, numerous studies have discovered the connection between this vital nutrient and our mental wellbeing. Here’s what the research suggests:

  • Depression: It’s not just a coincidence that people often feel gloomier during winter’s shorter, darker days. Reduced sun exposure can lead to lower vitamin D synthesis, which might influence your mood more than you realise.
  • Seasonal Mood Changes: Have you ever heard of the winter blues? It’s more than just disliking the cold weather. People with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) experience mood changes, usually during winter, which can be pretty severe. The reduced sunlight during these months means less natural vitamin D production, possibly contributing to the symptoms of SAD.
  • Anxiety: While the research is still budding, there are suggestions that low vitamin D levels might be associated with anxiety disorders. Imagine missing a key puzzle piece; without vitamin D, our brain might struggle to manage stress and anxiety adequately.

In conclusion, while vitamin D isn’t the sole factor in mood disorders, it undeniably plays a role in our overall mental wellbeing. Next time you take a moment under the sun or consider a supplement, remember the silent work this nutrient is doing for your brain. It might be the unsung hero of your mental health toolkit.

Low levels of Vitamin D may profoundly affect mental wellbeing
Low levels of Vitamin D may profoundly affect mental wellbeing

What does science say about Vitamin D and mood?


  1. Parker GB, Brotchie H, Graham RK. Vitamin D and depression. J Affect Disord. 2017 Jan 15;208:56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.082. Epub 2016 Oct 11. PMID: 27750060.
  2. Aghajafari F, Letourneau N, Mahinpey N, Cosic N, Giesbrecht G. Vitamin D Deficiency and Antenatal and Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2018 Apr 12;10(4):478. doi: 10.3390/nu10040478. PMID: 29649128; PMCID: PMC5946263.
  3. Głąbska D, Kołota A, Lachowicz K, Skolmowska D, Stachoń M, Guzek D. The Influence of Vitamin D Intake and Status on Mental Health in Children: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2021 Mar 16;13(3):952. doi: 10.3390/nu13030952. PMID: 33809478; PMCID: PMC7999324.

How can one ensure adequate and safe sunlight?

Sunlight: it’s nature’s most brilliant design for ensuring you get a daily dose of vitamin D. However, as you may be aware, excessive exposure can have repercussions on skin health due to harmful UV rays. So, how can you strike that perfect balance?

Before looking at the specifics, it’s essential to realise that not all sun exposure is harmful. Prolonged and intense exposure, particularly during peak hours, can be detrimental.

  • Time of day matters: Aim for the early morning or late afternoon. The sun’s rays are less intense during these periods, reducing the risk of skin damage.
  • Duration: Initially, spend 10-15 minutes in the sun three times a week. It’s a starting point to help boost your vitamin D levels without overexposure.
  • Use protection: If you plan to be out for extended periods, consider wearing a hat, sunglasses and protective clothing. And yes, that means sunscreen, too. Choose a broad-spectrum one that protects against both UVA and UVB rays.
  • Know your skin: Fair-skinned individuals can burn more quickly than those with darker complexions. Understanding your skin type can help you gauge how much sun is beneficial versus harmful.

When should I consider taking vitamin D supplements?

Now, let’s say you reside where sunshine is a rarity or your lifestyle keeps you indoors more often than not. The logical question that might be knocking at your door is: should I consider a supplement? Here’s what you need to know.

Firstly, it’s beneficial to determine whether you’re indeed deficient in vitamin D. Several signs might point towards this, such as:

  • Persistent fatigue or tiredness
  • Regular mood swings or feelings of depression
  • Muscle pain or weakness

If any of these symptoms sound familiar, consulting with a healthcare professional is a good idea. They can guide you on whether supplementation is right for you.

How do I choose the right vitamin D supplement?

Navigating supplementation can feel like diving into a vast ocean. But with some guidance, you can identify the best choices for your unique needs.

Types of Vitamin D

There are two main types of vitamin D – D2 and D3. Vitamin D3 is often sourced from animals, while D2 is plant-based. While both can help raise your vitamin D levels, D3 is generally considered more effective.

Vegan Vitamin D

  • Vitamin D2: As mentioned, D2 is usually vegan-friendly, being derived from yeast or fungi.
  • Lichen-sourced Vitamin D3: Some modern supplements are made from lichen. This composite organism arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a mutualistic relationship. This form of D3 is suitable for vegans.
  • Brands such as Viridian and Terranova offer a great range of Vegan Vitamin D3 options.

What about dosage?

When considering vitamin D supplementation, understanding the right dosage is paramount. The optimal amount can vary based on age, diet and where you live. Let’s look at recommended dosages for different age groups.

  • Infants (0-12 months): Regular guidance advises a daily intake of 400 IU (10 mcg). However, in certain situations, slightly elevated amounts might be suggested.
  • Children (1-18 years): While the typical daily dosage is 600 IU (15 mcg), this can be adjusted upward for children demonstrating a pronounced deficiency or increased requirements.
  • Adults up to 70 years of age: The general starting point is 600 IU (15 mcg) daily. That said, dosages ranging from 800 to 4,000 IU (20-50 mcg) daily are sometimes proposed for those with minimal sun contact or additional risk elements.
  • Adults aged 70 and above: A frequent recommendation is a daily intake of 800 IU (20 mcg). In certain scenarios, based on unique individual needs, this might be boosted up to 4,000 IU (50 mcg).
  • Pregnant or nursing mothers: The established guideline typically leans towards 600 IU (15 mcg) daily. Nonetheless, slightly elevated dosages may be advised when a deficiency is suspected.

It’s always best to consult with a healthcare professional. They can offer insight tailored to your specific needs.

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