From Sunlight to Supplements: Your guide to Vitamin D

Understand the pivotal role vitamin D plays in your health. Learn the balance between sun exposure and dietary supplementation for optimal wellbeing.

Your body converts sunshine into vitamin D
Your body converts sunshine into vitamin D


What is vitamin D?

Imagine a component so integral to your body that it influences everything from your bones to your mood. That’s vitamin D for you. Often dubbed the “sunshine vitamin”, it’s unique because, unlike other vitamins, your body can produce it with the help of sunlight.

  • Bone Health Booster: One of its primary roles is maintaining bone health. It does this by assisting in absorbing calcium and phosphorus, both vital for developing the structure and strength of your bones and teeth.
  • Mood and Brain Health: There’s emerging evidence suggesting that vitamin D might play some role in regulating mood and warding off depression.
  • Immune System Supporter: Vitamin D is pivotal in supporting your immune system, especially in these unpredictable times. It can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses, making it a cornerstone of your body’s defence mechanism.

You might be wondering, with all these roles, how can one ensure they’re getting enough? 

Why is there an increasing focus on vitamin D?

In our fast-paced world, it’s only sometimes feasible to soak up the sun or consume foods rich in vitamin D daily. This gap in intake has led to a widespread deficiency. Here’s why it’s become a popular topic:

  • Widespread Deficiency: Astonishingly, a significant portion of the global population lacks this essential vitamin. Whether it’s due to insufficient exposure to sunlight, dietary habits or certain health conditions.
  • Broad Health Implications: The more researchers look into vitamin D, the more they realise its extensive influence on health. From potential roles in preventing diseases like multiple sclerosis to its impact on weight management, it’s clear that vitamin D is not just another vitamin.
  • Shift towards Natural Wellbeing: Today, there’s a growing emphasis on holistic wellness. More and more, individuals like yourself are seeking natural ways to optimise health. And vitamin D, with its myriad benefits and sources, naturally fits the bill.

Navigating your way through the maze of health and nutrition can be daunting. But understanding the fundamentals, like the importance of vitamin D, can set the stage for a healthier life.

How does the human body produce vitamin D from sunlight?

Imagine basking in the glorious sunlight on a warm summer’s day. As the rays caress your skin, a magnificent process begins deep within your cells. Your skin contains a type of cholesterol that, when exposed to UVB rays from the sun, transforms into vitamin D. It’s like your body’s solar-powered factory!

Here’s a breakdown of this incredible process:

  • UVB Rays Penetration: Sunlight contains ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. These rays penetrate the upper layers of your skin.
  • Cholesterol Conversion: The UVB rays interact with a type of cholesterol in your skin cells, converting it into a precursor of vitamin D.
  • Liver and Kidney Activation: This precursor then travels through your bloodstream to your liver and kidneys, where it undergoes further conversion. The result? Active vitamin D is ready to be used by your body.
Skin tone and your location are key for understanding vitamin D production
Skin tone and your location are key for understanding vitamin D production

What are the optimal times and durations for sunlight exposure to ensure adequate vitamin D production?

Now, you might wonder, “How long should I stay in the sun?” The answer, intriguingly, varies.

  • Skin Tone Matters: Lighter skin synthesises vitamin D faster than darker skin. If you have fair skin, a mere 10 to 15 minutes of sunlight on your face, arms, and legs three times a week might suffice. However, you might need a bit longer if you have darker skin.
  • Location, Location, Location: If you live far from the equator, the sun’s rays are less direct, especially in winter. So, you’d need more prolonged exposure during these times.
  • Time of Day: The sun’s rays are most potent between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. So, aim for brief, regular exposure during these hours.

Remember, you don’t need to tan or burn your skin to get vitamin D. Burning is harmful and should be avoided at all costs.

Are specific regions or populations more at risk of inadequate sunlight exposure?

Your location plays a pivotal role in your vitamin D synthesis. Here’s why:

  • Higher Latitudes: Countries far from the equator, such as the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, experience fewer UVB rays, especially during winter. This can lead to potential vitamin D deficiencies among their populations.
  • Air Pollution: If you live in a bustling city with high levels of air pollution, the smog can block UVB rays.
  • Indoor Lifestyle: Modern life, with its indoor attractions like working from home, TV and video games, means many of us aren’t outdoors as often as we should be.

Populations at risk include:

  • Those living at higher latitudes or in highly polluted cities.
  • Individuals with occupations requiring long indoor hours.
  • Older adults may not venture outside as often.
  • Those with darker skin, due to melanin reducing the skin’s ability to produce vitamin D from sunlight.

Your location, lifestyle and even your skin can influence how much of this essential vitamin your body manufactures. Understanding the dance between the sun and your skin is vital for health and wellbeing. So, the next time you step outside, remember the silent magic beneath your skin and thank the sun for its nourishing embrace.

What are the primary dietary sources of vitamin D?

Your diet also plays a vital role in bolstering your vitamin D levels too, especially during those darker winter months or if you’re shielding yourself from direct sunlight. But which foods should you incorporate into your diet?

  • Fatty fish: Salmon, mackerel and sardines are top of the list. Not only are they delicious, but they also come packed with a hearty dose of vitamin D.
  • Eggs: Specifically, the yolk. So, the next time you’re whipping up a breakfast, remember that an egg can give your vitamin D levels a modest bump.
  • Fortified foods: Many breakfast cereals, plant-based milk (like almond and soy) and some types of orange juice have vitamin D added. Always check the label to be sure.
  • Beef liver: It might not be everyone’s cup of tea, but beef liver is a nutrient powerhouse, vitamin D included.
  • Cheese: While it’s true that not all cheese is a good source, certain types, like ricotta, have a decent amount of vitamin D.
Salmon is a good dietary source of vitamin D
Salmon is a good dietary source of vitamin D

How do different diets, such as vegetarian or vegan, affect one’s vitamin D intake?

Navigating your nutritional needs can sometimes feel like a maze, especially when choosing vegetarian or vegan. The question arises: Can you get enough vitamin D without using animal sources?

  • Mushrooms: Especially varieties like maitake and shiitake. Though they offer a different type of vitamin D (D2), they can still be beneficial.
  • Fortified plant-based products: With the rise of veganism, there’s been an uptick in foods fortified with vitamin D, especially plant-based milk and cereals.
  • Supplements: While food is a great starting point, vegan-friendly vitamin D supplements can ensure you meet your daily requirements without compromise. We’ll discuss this in more detail later.

Monitoring your vitamin D intake becomes even more crucial if you’re pursuing a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle. You might need to get creative but rest assured, it’s possible to maintain healthy levels on a plant-based diet.

Are there cultural or regional diets that naturally ensure sufficient vitamin D levels?

Dietary habits often vary by region, influenced by local produce, cultural practices and traditions. Some diets inherently offer more vitamin D than others. Here are a few examples:

  • Mediterranean Diet: Famed for its heart-healthy benefits, it is rich in fatty fish like sardines and mackerel. Regular consumption can help keep your vitamin D levels in check.
  • Japanese Diet: With seafood being a staple, it’s no surprise that the traditional Japanese diet provides a good dose of vitamin D.
  • Nordic Diet: Drawing from the cold northern European regions, this diet emphasises fish, especially fatty ones like salmon and herring, ensuring a steady supply of vitamin D.

But remember, just because a diet has traditionally provided enough vitamin D doesn’t mean you can become complacent. Modern lifestyles, indoor habits and increased use of sunscreen mean you should always keep an eye on your intake, no matter where you’re from.

By understanding these dietary sources and patterns, you can make informed choices, ensuring you’re nurturing your body with all the necessary vitamin D. Food isn’t just about pleasure; it’s also about health, vitality and overall wellbeing.

Should I consider taking vitamin D supplements?

You’re doing everything right: eating a balanced diet and spending time outdoors, and still, you could be running short on vitamin D. It might sound surprising, but various situations can cause a dip in your vitamin D levels. So, let’s recap on why you might need a little extra help from supplements:

  • Limited sunlight exposure: Living in the northern hemisphere? Winter can be harsh, and the sun is shy, meaning your skin gets fewer chances to produce vitamin D.
  • Strict sunscreen use: While it’s essential for skin protection, sunscreen can also block vitamin D synthesis.
  • Darker skin tones: Melanin reduces the skin’s ability to produce vitamin D from sunlight. Therefore, if you have a darker skin tone, you might need some supplemental help.
  • Dietary restrictions: Vegetarians and vegans can find it tricky to get enough vitamin D from food alone.
  • Certain medical conditions: Disorders that affect fat absorption, like Crohn’s disease, can also impact vitamin D absorption.

What is the difference between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3?

When it comes to vitamin D, two main types stand out: D2 and D3. But what’s the difference, and which should you go for?

  • Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol): Traditionally favoured by vegans, this form is plant-derived and often sourced from fungi. It’s effective, but some believe it might not be as potent as its counterpart.
  • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): Once only derived from animal sources like fish oil and lanolin, this type has been the go-to for many due to its potential to raise blood levels of the vitamin more efficiently.
  • Vegan Vitamin D: Times are changing, and innovations in supplementation have paved the way for vegan D3. Extracted from lichen, a naturally occurring composite organism, vegan D3 offers the benefits of D3 without any animal-derived components. It’s becoming a popular choice for vegans seeking the perceived higher efficacy of D3, but without compromising their ethical standards.

The landscape of vitamin D supplementation is broadening, giving you more choices than ever. Regardless of your dietary or ethical preferences, there’s likely an option tailored just for you. As always, it’s wise to consult a healthcare professional before adding any new supplement to your regimen.

How can I ensure I’m choosing a sustainable and high-quality vitamin D supplement?

You’re not just looking for a boost in vitamin D; you may want to make sure your choice is kind to the planet, too. Ensuring your supplement is sustainable and high-quality is easier than you think. Here’s how:

  • Check for certifications: Opt for supplements with certifications like ‘B-Corp’ or ‘Certified Organic’. This ensures ethical sourcing and eco-friendly practices. Brands such as Nature’s Plus and Viridian offer organic vitamin D options.
  • Transparent labelling: Quality supplements will list their ingredients, sourcing information and any fillers used. Brands like Together Health are consistent in their dedication to transparency in labelling and in offering the purest products possible.
  • Company values: Manufacturers committed to ethically and sustainably producing supplements will highlight their partnerships. Brands such as Viridian and Vegetology are long-time supporters of charities, with a cut of the profits from the sale of their products going to worthwhile causes. 
  • Customer reviews: Sometimes, the experiences of others can be your guiding light. Look for reviews that mention product efficacy and environmental impact. You can easily see the number of reviews each of our products has.

Supplementing your diet can ensure you get the vitamin D your body needs, especially when natural sources fall short. However, it’s always essential to make informed choices, not just for your health, but for the environment, too.

Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in bone and joint health
Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in bone and joint health

Is there any research about vitamin D supplementation?

There sure is, and lots of it too. Let’s take a closer look:

A review of studies found vitamin D supplements of 700-800 IU/day significantly reduced hip and non-vertebral fractures by over 20% in seniors, while 400 IU/day was ineffective. The researchers conclude that moderate-dose vitamin D supplementation can help prevent fractures in older adults, supporting its use for bone health.

Research found that Vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects beyond bone health, reducing inflammatory cytokines. Deficiency correlates with more severe rheumatoid arthritis. Supplementation to normalise vitamin D levels may be beneficial, and early research on using it as an immune-calming treatment shows promise for rheumatoid arthritis.

Another study found that Vitamin D impacts immune cells and has anti-inflammatory effects. Deficiency is associated with increased infectious and autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and multiple sclerosis. 


  1. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. JAMA. 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.18.2257. PMID: 15886381.
  2. Ishikawa LLW, Colavite PM, Fraga-Silva TFC, Mimura LAN, França TGD, Zorzella-Pezavento SFG, Chiuso-Minicucci F, Marcolino LD, Penitenti M, Ikoma MRV, Sartori A. Vitamin D Deficiency and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017 Jun;52(3):373-388. doi: 10.1007/s12016-016-8577-0. PMID: 27484684.
  3. Ao T, Kikuta J, Ishii M. The Effects of Vitamin D on Immune System and Inflammatory Diseases. Biomolecules. 2021 Nov 3;11(11):1624. doi: 10.3390/biom11111624. PMID: 34827621; PMCID: PMC8615708.

What are the current dosage guidelines for vitamin D?

Vitamin D recommendations tend to fluctuate between various health institutions and studies. It’s always vital to stay informed and consult health professionals for specific advice. That said, here’s an overview of general recommendations from various sources:

  • Infants (0-12 months): Typically 400 IU (10 mcg) daily, although some recommendations can go slightly higher.
  • Children (1-18 years): Standard advice often suggests around 600 IU (15 mcg) daily. Still, it might be increased in cases of deficiency or higher needs.
  • Adults up to age 70: Recommendations usually start at 600 IU (15 mcg) daily. However, some institutions and studies suggest dosages between 800 and 2,000 IU (20-50 mcg) daily, especially for those with limited sun exposure or higher risk factors.
  • Adults over 70 years: Commonly, 800 IU (20 mcg) daily is suggested, but there are instances where recommendations might extend to 2,000 IU (50 mcg) daily based on individual needs.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women: Standard guidelines often suggest 600 IU (15 mcg) daily. However, some professionals may recommend slightly higher amounts, especially if there’s concern about potential deficiency.

It’s imperative to note that higher dosages often come with caveats regarding monitoring levels and the potential for overdoing it. If you’re considering a dose at the higher end of the spectrum, it’s crucial to have regular checks and be under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Lifestyle, diet, geographical location and skin colour can significantly impact your vitamin D needs. Regularly reviewing these guidelines and adjusting according to your circumstances is essential.

Should I check my vitamin D levels?

Understanding your vitamin D levels is a proactive way to ensure optimal health. But how often should you be checking? For most people, a yearly routine check-up is enough to monitor vitamin D levels, especially if you’re taking supplements or suspect a deficiency. 

However, more frequent testing might be recommended if you’ve significantly changed your diet or supplement regimen or have certain health conditions.

When it comes to the actual test, here’s what to expect:

  • Blood Test (25-hydroxyvitamin D test): This is the most common and reliable method. A blood sample will be taken and analysed for the amount of vitamin D.

Remember, everyone’s needs and circumstances are different. If in doubt, consult with your GP or another healthcare professional. They can provide guidance tailored to you.

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